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Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Vicoa Indica Leaf Extract as UV-Protection and Antibacterial Activity on Textile Fabrics


Department of Textile Technology (Textile chemistry)
Anna University, Chennai 600 025


The synthesis and characterization of Nanosized Zinc Oxides particles and their application on the cotton fabric have been studied for the protection against UV- radiation and antibacterial activity. The effectiveness of the treatment of Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by Vicoa Indica leaf extract treated on cotton fabrics .As prepared and green synthesized ZnO structure morphology changed by calcined at three different temperatures with three different plant concentration [2g: 100 degree Celsius, 4g: 300 degree Celsius and 6g: 600 degree Celsius]. This paper mainly focuses on how to ZnO structure morphology influence in textile and antibacterial activities. This three different calcined ZnO Nanoparticles structure morphology analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), crystallites analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzed by particle analyzer. The three different temperature calcined ZnO nanoparticles coated on cotton fabric and subjected to UV protection and antibacterial studies.

1. Introduction

The green synthesis methods working for the synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles through organic solvents and toxic reducing and chelating agents, thereby intimidating the environment and most of the nanoparticles applications in biomedical, biotechnological, environmental, biological, and some industrial areas. Thus, the use of proper and biocompatible processes for the preparation of metal oxide nanoparticles has expected significant attention. Plant extracts approached the green synthesis of nanoparticles is one the cleanest, biocompatible, nontoxic and eco-friendly methods through large-scale production. Polyol components present in plant extracts act as chelating and capping agents for rapid biosynthesis of nanoparticles and stabilize the metallic nanoparticles formed. The majority of review report exposed that most studies have reported on the synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles such as silver, ferric, copper oxide, gold, copper, Palladium, etc. through a green route synthesis.

The contribution of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles currently used in several areas. Particularly textile industry and antimicrobial activities in significantly. The ZnO nanoparticles coated fabric, protection of the body against solar radiation, bacterial action and for other technological application. The ZnO is currently as an antibacterial agent against both Gram-negative microorganisms like E.coli and Gram-positive microorganisms like staphy lococus aurevs in microscale and nanoscale formation.
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Vicoa indica leaves are a common weed that belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. The leaves are evaluated for their wound healing activity in pets .Textile goods, especially those made from natural fibers; provide an excellent environment for microorganisms to grow, because of their large surface area and ability to retain moisture. Most textile materials currently used in hospitals and hotels are known to cause cross-infection or transmission of diseases caused by microorganisms. There are various chemical and physical methods that can be considered for the production of antimicrobial fabrics. Antimicrobials are used as bacteriostatic, bactericidal, fungistatic, or fungicidal, and offer special protection against various forms of textile rotting.
The objective of the present work was a green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by Vicoa indica leaf extract. As prepared ZnO was calcined at three different temperatures [2g: 100, 4g: 300 and 6g: 600 degree Celsius]. This paper mainly focuses on how to ZnO structure morphology influence in textile and antibacterial activities. This three different calcined ZnO nanoparticles structure morphology analyzed by SEM and TEM, crystallites analyzed by XRD, particle size analyzed by particle analyzer. The three different temperature calcined ZnO nanoparticles coated on cotton fabric and subjected to UV protection and antibacterial studies.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Sample collection

Fresh leaves of Vicoa indica were collected from in and around Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, and India. The collected leaves are washed twice with tap water followed by washed with Double distilled water at multiple times to remove dust from the surface of the leaves. Washed leaves are shade-dried for 15 days.

2.2 Preparation of leaf extract

Well dried Vicoa indica leaf was Ball milling at 15 h and finally got very fine leaf powder. Leaf extracted prepared by 2 g fine powder in 100 ml double distilled water and well stirred with 70 degree Celsius   maintained at 2 h. This mixer was cooled to room temperature and leaf extracted separately filtered by Whatman (No. 3) filter paper. This leaf extracted used as a catalyst for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles without another chemical.

2.3 Preparations of ZnO Nanoparticles

The prepared 50 ml A. indica leaf extract poured in 0.5 g zinc acetate with stirring at 60 degree Celsius   1 h occurring ZnO precipitated. The obtained precipitated  was washed with double distilled water several time finally heated in a hot air oven at 80 degree Celsius  for 24 h. Obtained ZnO nanopowders calcined at three different temperature (100, 300 and 600 degree Celsius ). This powders allowed for the following the investigation.

3. Characterization of ZnO

The XRD pattern of three (2:100, 4:300 and 6:600 degree Celsius  ) prepared ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using Philips X’pert MPD powder diffractometer (X’Pert PRO, PANalytical, the Netherlands) operated with the long fine focus of Cu anode at 40 KV and 30 mA in Bragg-Brentano geometry. The XRD patterns were obtained in the 2θ range from 10º to 80º in a step-scan mode with a 2θ step size of 0.02º. The constituents of elements in the prepared ZnO nanoparticles were identified using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDX-720; Shimadzu, Japan). The UV-visible spectra of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles were recorded employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Cary 8454, Agilent, Singapore) operating in the UV to near IR (180 – 800 nm) spectral regions. The sample for analysis was prepared by diluting 0.1mL of the sample in a cuvette to 2mL using deionized water. The same procedure was employed to record the spectra for all samples.
The particle size distribution was determined using a dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique with a sub-micrometer particle size analyzer (Nanophox, Sympatec, Germany). The particle size of all samples was measured in the range of 1-1000 nm at a scattering angle of 90 degrees. All prepared ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (JSM 6360; JEOL, Japan) to identify the morphology, microstructure, and elemental composition of the prepared samples. Grain size and surface morphology of ZnO nanoparticles were scans through transmission electron microscopy (TEM, CM200; Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) operated at a potential of 120 kV. The average particle size and diffraction pattern of the ZnO nanoparticles were refined.

4. Nanocomposites coating on cotton fabrics

1 g chitosan was dissolved in 1 M acetic acid and under string for 12 h. 100 degree Celsius calcined ZnO nanoparticles (2g) mixed with the chitosan solution. This mixture was stirring in 1 h and 30 min sonicated after the stirring. The nanocomposites coated on cotton woven fabric (plain weave 138.84 grams per sq., 116 ends per inch, picks per inch 84) used in the pad-dry-cure method. The coated cotton fabric was dried at 80 degree Celsius for 20 min. In order to compare the uncoated and nanocomposites coated cotton fabric. Above the similar process did for another two different calcined ZnO nanoparticles (4:300 and 6:600 degree Celsius).

5. Conclusions

Obtained better ZnO nanoparticles by Vicoa Indica leaf extract and high-temperature calcined ZnO particles with different plant concentration has totally differed and good crystal structure than other techniques. ZnO structure morphology and particle size slightly influence in textile and antibacterial activities. The disc loaded of ZnO nanoparticles maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria at a concentration of 100 mg/ml in 600 degree Celsius and higher rate UV restriction than low calcined ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabrics. SEM and TEM given clear evidence of high-temperature calcined ZnO particles has a uniform and spherical morphology than low-temperature calcined ZnO particles. The XRD given the clear victim of ZnO nanoparticles crystallites size was increased with increasing the temperature.

6. References

  1. S. Hiremath, C. Vidya, M. A. Lourdu Antonyraj, M. N. Chandraprabha, P. Gandhi, A. Jain and K. Anand, Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles assisted by Euphorbia tirucalli (Pencil Cactus), Int J Current Eng Technol. 1 (2013) 176-179.
  2. Y. Abboud, T. Saffaj, A. Chagraoui, A. El Bouari, K. Brouzi, O. Tanane, B. Ihssane, Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) produced using brown alga extract (Bifurcaria bifurcata), Appl Nanosci. 4 (2014) 571-576.
  3. P. Sutradhar, M. Saha and D. Maiti, Microwave synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using tea leaf and coffee powder extracts and its antibacterial activity, J. Nanostruct. Chem. 4 (2014) 86-91.
  4. P. Mohanpuria, N. K. Rana, S. K. Yadav, Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications, J. Nanopart. Res. 10 (2008) 507-517.
  5. M. Pattanayak, P. L. Nayak, Eco-friendly green synthesis of iron nanoparticles from various plants and spices extract, Int. J. Pl.An and Env.Sci. 3 (2013) 68-78.
  6. A. Iyer, S. Panchal, H. Poudyal and L. Brown, Potential health benefits of Indian species in the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome: a review, Indian. J. Biochem. Biophys. 46 (2009) 467-481.
  7. R. S. Varma, G.E. Hoag, J. B. Collins, J. L. Holcomb, J. R. Hoag,M. N. Nadagouda, Degradation of bromothymol blue by ‘greener’ nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols. J. Mater Chem. 19 (2009) 8671–8677.
  8. Q. Sun, X. Cia, J. Li, M. Zheng, Z. Chen, C. P. Yu, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tea leaf extract and evaluation of their stability and antibacterial activity, Colloids. Surf. A. 444 (2014) 226-231.
  9. N. A. Begum, S. Mondal, S. Basu, R. A. Laskar, D. Mandal, Biogenic synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using aqueous solutions of Black Tea leaf extracts, Colloids. Surf. B. 80 (2009) 113-118.
  10. M. N. Nadagouda, R. S. Varma, Green synthesis of silver and palladium nanoparticles at room temperature using coffee and tea extract, Green. Chem. 10 (2008) 859-862.
  11. V. Smuleac, R. Varma, S. Sikdar and D. Bhattacharyya, Green synthesis of Fe and Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticle in membranes for reductive degradation of chlorinated organic, J. Membr. Sci. 379 (2011) 131-137.
  12. M. N. Nadagouda, A. B. Castle, R. C. Murdock, S. M. Hussain, R. S. Varma, In Vitro Biocompatibility of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles (NZVI) Synthesized using tea polyphenols, Green. Chem. 12 (2010) 114-122.
  13. F. Asmaa, M. Shaaban, U. Mathias, T. Torsten, ZnO nanoparticles-chitosan composite as an antibacterial finish for textiles, Int. J. Carbohydr. Chem. (2012) 8.
  14. B. Venkatrajah, V. Vanitha Malathy, B. Elayarajah, Mohan, R. Rajendren R. Rammohan, Biopolymer and Bletillastriata., Herbal Extract Coated Cotton Gauze preparation for Wound Healing, J. Med. Sci. 12 (2012) 148–160.

1. Sewability of Fabrics

“Sewability of fabric is the characteristic property of a fabric which allows it to be seamed at the full limit of high-speed sewing machinery, without the mechanical degradation of fabric.”
Generally, the strength of woven fabric is considerably reduced by the seaming operation which intern reduces the overall life of a garment. Cutting, scorching, or fusing of yarns in fabric by a sewing needle are the reasons behind the loss in fabric strength as well as poor seam appearance. Fabric sewability is one of the top ten quality problems in garment industry. 

Sewability of Fabrics
Sewability of Fabrics

2. Sewability Test

Sewability of a fabric (The degree of its resistance to needle damage) can be assessed by determining:
  1. The proportion of fabric yarns cut by the needle (Needle Cutting/Yarn Severance).
  2. Loss in fabric strength caused by needle damage.

2.1 Needle Cutting Index/Yarn Severance

Needle cutting or yarn severance in a fabric is unreceptive because due to frayed yarns it may result in reduced seam strength, poor seam appearance or both.

2.1.1 ASTM test method for needle cutting or yarn severance:

Sewn seams are prepared for testing. After seaming operation is over, the sewing threads are removed from the test specimens. The count of the number of yarns in fabric and the count of the number of severed (detached/disengaged/ cut) and fused fabric yarns in the direction nearly perpendicular to the direction of sewing are used to calculate the needle cutting index. Needle cutting index can be determined by following formula.

Formula: Needle Cutting Index
Formula: Needle Cutting Index
One of the reason behind the needle cutting or yarn severance occurs is the stiffness of the yarns in fabric (fabric yarns) and a lack of mobility of the yarns. Instead of moving and/or deforming when the needle penetrates the fabric structure, the yarns remain taut and are ruptured or burned. Some damage may result from:
  • Excessive heat generated due to the friction of the sewing needle and the fabric.
  • Use of wrong size needle will result in sewing damage.

2.2 Seam Efficiency

There is loss in fabric strength after sewing which is because of damage caused by needle to yarn in fabric during needling.

The measurement of the loss in fabric strength due to needle damage consists of sewing a seam in the fabric, breaking the fabric at the line of stitching, and establishing a ratio between the original and the seamed fabric strength. Seam efficiency can be given by following formula:

Formula: Seam Efficiency
Formula: Seam Efficiency
“If seam efficiency falls below 80%, the fabric has been excessively damaged by the sewing operation”.

1.What is Snagging in Fabric?

In this article points like what is snagging in fabric and Fabric snagging test methods are covered. An article covering points like factors affecting fabric snagging, how to prevent fabric snagging, snagging resistance fabric/ anti-snagging fabric will be published soon.
“Snagging is defined as a defect caused by the pulling or plucking of yarns from a fabric surface.”
The snagging of a specific fabric in actual wear varies with the individual wearer and general condition of use. Knits used in a more rugged outerwear application, such as men's slacks, result in very high and unacceptable levels of snagging.

2. Fabric Snagging Test Methods

ASTM has following fabric snagging test methods for testing snag resistance of fabric.
  1. Mace Test
  2. Bean Bag Test

2.1 Mace Test

2.1.1 Test Method

In mace test, fabric specimens are placed on a cylindrical drum in tubular form. A mace (spiked ball) is allowed to bounce randomly against each rotating specimen. Snags could occur to a fabric due to the bouncing action of mace i.e. spiked ball over fabric specimen. The degree of fabric snagging is then evaluated by comparison of the tested specimens with visual standards that may be either fabric or photographs of fabrics. 
Mace Fabric Snagging Test
Mace Fabric Snagging Test

2.1.2 Mace Snag Tester


The observed resistance to snagging is reported on a scale ranging from No. 5 (no snagging) to No. 1 (severe snagging).

Suitability of Test:

This method is suitable for a range of woven and knitted fabrics made from textured or untextured yarns containing staple or continuous filaments.

2.2 Bean Bag Test

2.2.1 Test Method

In bean bag test, fabric specimens are cut into dimensions of approximately 9 x18 cm. This is folded in half and sewn into a pouch as shown in fig.2. A "bean bag" weighing approximately 1 lb is placed in the pouch. After placing the bean bag into the pouch of test specimen, the top/open part of that pouch is sewn and closed. This closed pouch is placed in the cylinder, which has eight baffle bars with a series of tenter pins protruding from them at an angle. After placing the pouch in cylinder the machine is started because of which the test specimen is subjected to a random tumble action. The tenter pins act to snag the specimen as the cylinder rotates. The tenter pins carry it (pouch) to the top of the chamber, where it pulls away and drops to the bottom. The specimen is subjected to 100 revolutions of the cylinder. 

Bean Bag Snag Tester
Bean Bag Snag Tester
The specimen is then removed and the degree of snagging is evaluated by two methods:

  1. Comparison of the tested specimen with visual rating standards that may be either snagged fabrics or photographs of snagged fabrics.
  2. Counting the number of snags. 

The resistance to snagging can be reported in the first case on a numerical scale ranging from No.5 (no or insignificant snagging) to No.1 (severe snagging), and simply as number of snags in the second case.
The bean bag method to have the following advantages over other snagging tests in use:
  1. Snagging is multidirectional in end use and the bean bag method simulates this very effectively.
  2. This test is more realistic. The test fabric is mounted in a relaxed state nad tension occurs only as the weighted bean bag pulls the test specimen away from the tenter pins where it was impaled.
  3. Test data obtained from this test method is less variable.
  4. Due to multidirectional testing and low variation, half the number of test specimens were required.

Nancy Cao

Principle of Testing

Circle samples are grazed by fabrics with compatible material considering the recommended pressure in the trajectory of Lissajous movement, to accomplish certain turns and calculate the tested samples degree of pilling. 

Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Tester
Fig.1 Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Tester

Figure 2 below is frequently used though there are four types of Lissajous.     

How to Test Abrasion and Pilling?

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Procedure for Testing

  1. For 8 hours the tested sample should be kept in the laboratory surrounding.
  2. Get a sample from the compressed section of the tested sample (it should be detached to the transfer site if it turns out to be a shoe pad.
  3. Take out the load and make sure the shaft of the machine is loaded 
  4. Take out the test fixture and the uppermost plate.
  5. Device for specimen: untighten the fixing ring found on the test fixture, the press tablet sample should be taken off, the test fixture base is where the sample will be placed, between the specimen and the test fixture base a gasket should also be placed. fixed with the ring is a press sample placed on the sample gasket.
  6. Friction cloth device and wool felt: untighten the fixing ring around the fixing screw, put the friction cloth on the placed wool felt on the base, in the middle of the friction clothe is where the 2.5kg pressure should be placed, tighten back the lock fixed screw and fixed ring.
  7. The load shaft (12KPA) should be placed through the uppermost flat hole, the uppermost plate should also be fixed back.
  8. Test fixture face while a sample is down, it should be placed on the base fixture, so that the shaft load is properly inserted into the circular groove of the test fixture the load shaft must be adjusted against the circular groove of the test fixture.
  9. Following the official set times, start testing after pushing the switch, shut down should be automatic when acquiring the pre-set times.

Martindale Abrasion Tester Parameters

Specification Value
Number of Stations 8
Count Display Expected Count 0~999999 times
Accelerated Count 0~999999 times
Maximum Movement 24±0.5mm / 60.5±0.5mm
Quality of Compress Materials Holder 200±1g
Small Hammer 395±2g
Large Hammer 595±2g
Grinding Block Effective Friction Diameter Type A 200g(1.96N) Friction Head ¢ 28.8 -0.084mm
Type B 155g(1.52N) Friction Head ¢ 90 - 0.10mm
Dimension (L ×W ×H) 680 × 570 × 400mm
Weight 120 Kg
Power 220 /110 V 50/60 Hz

Precautions During Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Test

  1. To determine (times of rub) check intervals, it is meant to prevent fabrics grazing more than pre-set testing abrasion, worn out of samples should be prevented, or else grazing times won’t be accounted for. When checking the apparent differences, determining the check intervals is to prevent missing graze times that is seen on the sample surface
  2. Loosen conditions of the samples tested are to be left in a polished, airy plane of acceptable atmosphere for 18hours at least. when samples are to be taken, there should be at least a distance of 100mm from the cloth, enough samples should be taken (3 pieces at least) from the samples in the laboratory, also gather all information concerning fabrics.

Precautions During Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Operations

  1. Immediately after a test the friction clothe should be replaced because it cannot be used several times.
  2. Wool felt can only be replaced if the surface is stained or worn out.
  3. During the Martindale abrasion test the pad of the shoe should be removed with the clothing.
  4. Abnormal conditions on sample surface such as broken yarn, serious wear or serious pilling, fluff etc. make the tested samples to be judged as defective after each testing.
  5. Try and pay extra attention to prevent fluff during the cutting of edges to prevent mass loss and difference in appearance.
  6. Ensure to consider personal safety and operation during the apparatus operation process.

What are the important setting points in a flat card?

What is the setting you will recommend for low grade cotton/for 1.25" cotton /for fine mixing/ for coarse, medium mixing and describe their influence on production & waste?

Carding Machine Settings
Carding Machine Settings

The Knowledge of optimum setting of the various organs of card and their effect on quality are essential for successful maintenance of carding process. The optimum settings are influenced by the following factors.
  1. The staple length of the material.
  2. The amount of trash to be removed,
  3. The hank of lap fed.
  4. The expected waste percentage.
  5. Type of clothing
  6. Mechanical condition of the machine.


1. Feed plate to licker -in

0.009 inch to 0.012 inch

The object of this setting is to detach cotton in very small tufts from the lap without damaging the fibres. If the setting is too close, the longer fibres will be damaged and the waste increased. If it is too wide, the cotton will be detached from the lap fringe in large tufts or even lumps. When this setting is correct the cotton is evenly distributed on the main cylinder surface.

2. Licker - in to mote knives

  1. Upper knife -10 Thou (10 Thou means 0. 010 inch)
  2. Bottom knife- 12 to 15 Thou.

The object of this setting is to extract vegetable impurities like seed hits, 1 eaves, husks and other foreign impurities from cotton.
If the setting is too close, loss of good cotton may occur and if it so too wide, the mote knives operate inefficiently.

3. Licker in to under grid

5/16 inch.

The object of this setting is to hold the good fibre on the Licker in and fall down the dust, dirt, short fibres through under grid.
Close setting increases the fibre extraction with the waste.

4. Licker in to cylinder

 0. 007 inch

The object of this setting is to transfer the fibres to the cylinder.
The settings may be as close as 0. 005" for effective transfer of fibres, if the condition of taker-in is good (i. e) dynamically balanced, an unreasonably wide wetting will fail to transfer the fibres leading to formation of neps.

5. Back plates

  1. Lower edge: 0.022 inch
  2. Upper edge: 0. 017 inch

The object of the back plate setting is to control air currents and to some degree licker-in fly.
Wider setting other than given above will result in cloudy web due to uneven distribution of the fibres across the cylinder because of the uncontrolled air currents.

6. Cylinder to flats

0. 010 inch

The object of this setting is to card the fibres well so as to produce a clean web.
A close setting tends to produce cleaner web whereas wide settings results in more neps in the web.

7. Front plate

A.  Top % plate:

  1. Upper edge- 10 thou to 60 thou.
  2. Lower edge-32 Thou

B. Front bottom plate:

  1. Upper edge:32 thou.
  2. Lower edge:15 thou.

The object of Top % plate setting is to control flat strip waste. Wider front plate setting causes more flat strips waste and good cotton is lost as flat waste. If the setting is very close flat waste will be deposited on the cylinder causing poor web. The object of bottom plate setting is to transfer cotton from cylinder to the doffer evenly. Wider settings will cause uneven web due to uncontrolled air currents.

8. Cylinder to doffer

0. 005 inch

The object of this setting is to take off all good cotton from the cylinder by doffer. The setting may be wider as much as 0. 007" for heavier laps. Wider settings will result in patchy or cloudy web.

9. Cylinder to cylinder under casing

  1. Back 0. 012 inch
  2. Middle-0. 032 inch
  3. Front -0. 064 inch

Object of this setting is to keep the fibres on the cylinder and to let the dirt, dust and short fibres fall out. These settings influence air currents and production of fly and too wide settings causes loss of fibre.

10. Doffer to doffer comb

12 to 15 thou

The object of this setting is to remove as much good fibres as possible without touching. For heavy slivers and production the settings may be little wider.

11. Plats to flat stripping comb

32 thou

The correct setting is that the comb should not touch at any point and remove the strips effectively.

Ring Spinning Open-end Spinning
Bobbin rotates constantly for insertion of twist Spool does not need to be rotated to insert twist
Cannot handle spools of bigger size Much larger spools can be wound
Can spin finer yarns 3-5 times faster than ring spinning
Uniform and strong yarn Uniform but flexible yarn with better dye ability
Combed yarns (finer) Carded yarns (coarser)
Yarns for varied applications Yarns for heavier fabrics such as denims, towels and poplins
Stronger 20% more twisted but 15-20% weaker as the yarn is coarser
Suitable for all staple fibres Not suitable for man-made staple fibre spinning except rayon as the fibre finish clogs the rotor

Ring Spinning vs. Open-end Spinning
Ring Spinning vs. Open-end Spinning

Open-end or Carded or Break or Rotor Spinning

  1. The twist in the yarn being determined by the ratio of the rotational speed of the rotor and the linear speed of the yarn.
  2. The production rates of rotor spinning is 6-8 times higher than that of ring spinning and as the machines are fed directly by sliver and yarn is wound onto packages ready for use in fabric formation.
  3. The yarn is a lot cheaper to produce.
  4. Rotor spun yarns are more even, somewhat weaker and have a harsher feel than ring spun yarns.
  5. Rotor spun yarns are mainly produced in the medium count (30 Ne, 20 Tex) to coarse count (10 Ne, 60 Tex) range.
  6. End uses include denim, towels, blankets socks, t-shirts, shirts and pants.
  7. The use of this system has two basic advantages. It is fed by sliver, not as with the ring frame by roving, and so eliminates the speed frame from the process line. It can also be modified to remove any remaining trash, thereby improving the yarn quality.
  8. Open-end yarns tend to be more uniform, lower in strength, more extensible, bulkier, more abrasion resistant and more absorbent. It is likely then with all of these differences, only some of which are beneficial, that open-end spinning will not replace ringspun yarn as originally thought, but will be a complimentary product.
  9. Open-end spinning operates at a rate up to five times that of ring spinning and can be effectively used for cotton, polyester-cotton blends, as well as other short and medium staple systems.
  10. Synthetic staple fibers such as polyester alone can not be effectively open end spun due to dusting of oligomer from the fibers that interferes with the spinning action of the rotor.
  11. Advantages of Ring Spinning
  12. Production of high strength yarns.
  13. Spinning of fine count yarns.
  14. Proper for special yarns.
  15. It is universally applicable (any material can be spun).
  16. The know — how for operation of machine is well established accessible to everyone.
  17. It is flexible as regards quantities (blend and lot size).
  18. Since the speeds in drawing section are best controlled, yarn evenness is excellent. But if short fibers are too much, yarn unevenness occurs.
  19. Fine yarns can be produced as compared to open-end system.

Disadvantages of Ring Spinning

  1. Process stages are more numerous. Roving stage exists as an extra process compared to the other systems.
  2. Yarn breakages are more numerous as a result of ring traveler friction and yarn air friction. Interruptions, broken ends and piecing up problems exist because of the yarn breakages.
  3. The high speed of the traveler damages the fibers.
  4. The capacity of the cops is limited.
  5. Energy cost is very high.
  6. Low production rate.
  7. New spinning processes have difficulty in gaining widespread acceptance. Owing to their individual limitations, the new spinning processes are confined to restricted sectors of the market.
  8. The ring frame can only survive in longer term if further success is achieved in automation of the ring spinning process. Also, spinning costs must be markedly reduced since this machine is significant cost factor in spinning mill.
  9. The cost structure in ring spinning mill is shown in the graph.

Ashish Hulle


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