Empowering Textile Education Since 2013. Online Textile Academy is a portal to enhance your textile knowledge in every aspect.

September 2017

Dhananjay Chavan

Department of Textiles
D.K.T.E. Society’s Textile and Engineering Institute, “Rajwada”, Ichalkaranji-416115 Maharashtra, India
E-mail*: [email protected]

Abstract

Developments in spinning have generated many yarns structures like fancy yarns, intend for different domains and end use. In these yarns, irregularities like neps, knots, loops and snarls of different size and shape are arranged with varying distance between them. One of the well-known and most popular fancy yarns is the slub yarn. As an example of a textile issue that was once considered a defect, slub yarn has proven to be an advantage in some instances. There are different types of slub yarns exists viz. normal slub yarn, multi-count, multi-twist, reverse slub, and slub on slub which are discussed in this paper.

Keywords- slub yarn, multi-count, negative slub, slub on slub.


Fancy Yarn

1. Introduction to Spun Fancy Yarn

Yarn refers to a structure composed of a continuous length of interlocked fibers. They are suitable for use in the production of different types of textiles. However, fancy yarn deviates from the normal yarns. These deviations occur mainly due to the introduction of deliberate decorative discontinuities in the form of colour, structure or both. In these yarns, irregularities like neps, knots, loops and snarls of different size and shape are arranged with varying distance between them. One of the well-known and most popular fancy yarns is the slub yarn. Slub yarn is the yarn containing thick places of different thickness and length. This soft lump, or slub, would appear from time to time over each run of one thousand linear feet of yarn, and would have to be removed before the material would be ready for warping or twisting. Over time, however, the concept of yarns containing a high count of slubs as a textural and style alternative began to develop. Slub yarn can form special appearance on the surface of the fabric; it is widely used in garments and decorative fabrics. The special appearance is determined by the different parameters of the slub-yarn, including the slub length, slub distance, slub amplitude and periodicity rule of the slub.

2. Slubbing Effects

There are four basic of Fancy effects: slub, multi-count, multi-twist, and reverse slub. The various combinations among these four can create infinite yarn and fabric designs.

2.1. Slub Yarn

Slub yarns contain slubs/thick places at predefined intervals along the length of the yarn. Slub can be defined by its length and diameter. The distance between two slubs is called a pause. Slub length and pause length determine the slub frequency, i.e. the number of slubs per unit length. In slub yarn, the dimension of the slub (length and diameter) can be the same as shown in fig.1.

Figure 1: Slub Yarn [3]
Figure 1: Slub Yarn [3]
Slub Yarn is a yarn containing thick places of different thickness and length that are achieved by the programmed acceleration of back and middle rollers in case of ring spinning and the feed roller in the case of rotor spinning. Slubbing effects are produced via a program controlled drafting system using a servomotor which varies acceleration of back and middle rollers in case of ring spinning, at the same time maintaining the front roller at a constant speed. This controlled acceleration produces variation in slubs (or flames) count (TSlub), spacing (or pause) length (Lpause) and spacing count (Tpause).


To create a slub is as simple asserting its length in millimetres, its thickness (multiplier) as a percentage of the base yarn and the pause (distance between one slub to the next) in millimetres. The random variation of thickness, length and pause gives a wide range of effects, ensuring the use of slub yarns in many applications like denim, shirting, knitwear, casual wear, ladies dress material and also in curtains and upholstery.

2.2. Multi-Count Yarn

In principle, the multicount yarn consists of different yarn counts one after another along the same yarn path. Each Slub in a Slub-yarn can be extended to make a multicount yarn. The multicount yarn consists of different yarn counts of random sequence. Twist multiplier of the yarn remains unchanged in spite of varying the draft. The multicount effect is obtained through a draft variation to modify the count and the front roller speed to modify the twist. With the electronic drafting system drive using servomotor, both draft and twist can be varied in a controlled manner. Slubs of different thickness, length and twist are incorporated into the yarn during the manufacturing process of yarn.
Figure 2: Multi-Count Yarn [3]
Figure 2: Multi-Count Yarn [3]
Multicount yarn can also have short slubs on each count and this type of yarn is known as Multicount – Multi slub yarn. Multicount yarns are presently in great demand for denim yarns. In practice, a pattern repeat for multicount yarns consists of 2 to 5 yarn counts. The length of the yarn sections in the individual counts is between 0.5 and 5 metres. For denim, short length effects are interesting, as they can be seen in the trouser leg or in the sleeve. The long yarn effects are more seldom, and they are rather used for home textiles.

2.3. Multi-Twist Yarn

In this type of yarn, the yarn count does not change, but the yarn twist is changed. Different twist levels obtained will create variations in the yarn's dye intake, thus creating a special fabric appearance. The twist difference causes a colour change in the fabric. Yarn sections with different twist absorb the colour particles differently. The yarn section which receives more twist has lower dye uptake and vice a verse. This causes the colour effects.

Figure 3: Multi-Twist Yarn [6]
Figure 3: Multi-Twist Yarn [6]

2.4. Slub on Slub

In this yarn, the diameter may vary infinite times on every single slub according to its length. So each slub may have any shape and drawing.

Figure 4: Slub on Slub [3]
Figure 4: Slub on Slub [3]

2.5. Injected Slub Yarn

Injection slub yarn is a specialized fancy yarn and it is made up of two different materials, one for slub portion and the other for base yarn. Both the material will be dissimilar in nature, colour and character. The basic principle behind the production of injection slub yarn is, slub portion will be injected at random over the continuous running of base yarn. In this process, two yarns are twisted together and short fibres are injected into the form-locking connection. These injected slubs are produced and located in just the right places. Its length, thickness, and distance can be varied to create different structural effects on the fabric.

2.6. Negative Slub

As the slub, the negative slub or reverse slub is obtained with a drafting variation that, in this case, is negative and reduces the yarn thickness. Here slub formation is without changing the front roller speed, for a perfect distribution of the twist on the yarn.
Figure 5: Reverse Slub Yarn [3]
Figure 5: Reverse Slub Yarn [3]

Conclusions

There is a great demand of slub yarns in suiting, shirting, denim and home textiles. With advanced technology now it is possible to produce a different variant of slub yarns in controlled and reproducible manner.

References

  1. Salhotra K. R., Production of Fancy Yarns and Their Uses, Nodal Centre for Upgradation of Textile Education Publication on Advances in Tech of Yarn Prod, pp 344. 
  2. Pan R., Gao W., Liu J., Wang H., Recognition the Parameters of Slub-yarn Based on Image Analysis, Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Vol 6 (1), 2011, pp 25-30.
  3. http://www.marzoli.it/sites/default/files/pages_attach/marzoli_fancy_yarn/fancy_yarn_inglese_bassa.pdf
  4. Jiangyin CF Tex. Tech Co Ltd, China, Web: www.noveltexindia.com.
  5. Souid H., Sahnoun M., Babay A., Cheikrouhou M., Slub yarn quality optimization by using diagrams of superimposed contours, International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology, Vol.2(4), 2012, pp 796-800.
  6. Shakeel I., Pramanik P., Fancy Yarns: Slubs and Multicount, Indian Textile Journal, vol. 119(8), 2009, p24.
  7. Jansen W., Fancy Yarns in Rotor Spinning, Asian Textile Journal, March 2006, pp 68.
  8. Iqbal S. and Pramanik P, Fancy Yarns for Fancy Denim, ITEC World Textile Conference on Apparel and Home Textiles, Jenny club Coimbatore, Aug. 2007.
  9. http://www. Skeetindia.com/Injslub.html.
  10. http://www. Skeetindia.com/Negative.html.

The color matching cabinet is conversant to many people working in textile and plastic industry. As the name suggests, it offers a standardized visual evaluation of color. It is used for the determination of the color fastness in the textile and other industries. The color fastness is determined by electronic crock meter machine which is a projected and highly coveted machine in the textile market.

The textile market has seen a significant growth in the last few decades with growing use of a color matching cabinet. The increasing consciousness about fashion and color among people has become a great factor to lead the development of the textile industry. In today's world, there is a great demand for high-quality textile products. Thus, it is significant for the manufacturers to ensure the best manufacturing process and better quality control. A color matching cabinet makes the work easier for them.

One of the problems that the manufacturers face in the textile industry is Metamerism with the fabrics. It is the common phenomenon as the fabrics come in several looks in different lighting environments. This can be a notable problem for the buyers and color sensible people. This is why the manufacturers of the products want to do this work sincerely. It becomes tough to maintain the stability of the products. In such a situation this equipment becomes the best weapon to ensure a satisfactory customer service.

Color matching cabinets are used in many industries to provide the standardized setting for evaluation, justification and visual evaluation of colors. It is perfect for more or less all applications where you need to maintain color reliability and quality. It allows a user to evaluate color sample under different light sources like filament light, artificial daylight, tube light and ultra violet light. The assessment of fabrics under multiple light sources is the best way to spot and determine metamerism when samples seem to less than one light source. This is the only way to differentiate one from another. Color matching is the accepted and preferred choice for faster, closer and perfect color matching of the samples.

Color matching cabinets are used in several industries such as plastic, painting, plating, paper, and textile. It has no better alternative in the case of quicker, closer and correct color matching solution.

A color matching cabinet measures the color variance between two samples. 

An excellent and perfect color matching cabinet is equipped with most correct light cabinet for visual analysis and assessment of fabrics, textiles, plastics, and leathers, etc. It checks and analyses color-matching under a standard light source. The checking method is performed under a closed setting to minimize the interference of external lights.


Color matching cabinet booth

Color matching cabinet booths are used widely in textile industry for color evaluation. These come with doors. Clothing Companies and exporters use these to decide the perfect color combination.


Color matching cabinet booth
Color Matching Cabinet


How does a color matching cabinet work?

  • The equipment provides an extensive viewing area. It is well-equipped with various light sources or lamps or tube lights to spot the phenomenon of Metamerism. Here samples come to match under a single light source. To reach the ultimate destination and get approval, the fabric has to go through various light sources. These light sources include artificial daylight, cool white light, tungsten filament light, triphosphor fluorescent light, and ultraviolet black light. 
  • The sample needs to be tested. Besides, the original samples are to be sent in the viewing cavity. 
  • It is necessary to check the original specimen carefully, after switching on the D-65 Light. This is same for the specimen to be tested. 
  • When the match is perfect and suitable, the specimen needs to be tested under TFL Lamps and CWF Light 
  • The test is conducted under U.V.B Light. It is compulsory to ensure whether both samples react similarly and perfectly to ultraviolet radiation. 
  • Then the final test is done under Fluorescent lamp tube, the colors are accepted at the 'Point of Sale.' 
  • All these help in judging, justifying and measuring the color differences perfectly, comparing the samples in different atmosphere and conditions. When the match of both samples is carried out under all the lights, it becomes perfect for Dyeing, Printing and the coloring of the fabric or yarn as per the industry desires. 
  • The color matching cabinet determines the international standards. It can meet the color combinations needed in several industries. 
  • Most of these products come with a warrant. This guarantees satisfactory customer experience which helps you build a long-term consumer relationship.


Keeping pace with the time and demand, a wide range of color matching cabinets has come to the marketplace. These days, many reputable establishments have started manufacturing this equipment. As there is a hard completion in the market, these are coming with cleverer features and functionalities. However, at the time of buying these, you must purchase from a reliable company. If you purchase online, you need to buy a branded product from a reliable e-commerce. This will save your time, money and efforts.

Technical Textiles is moving fast | Here is what you need to know

Technical textiles are one of the most special grades of textiles, which are made up of specific chemical & physical characteristics that are designed for some particular end use. Technical textiles are basically used in home furnishings, automobile, health care, sports, engineering, industrial, and other specific purpose consumer goods industries. Technical textiles are manufactured through raw materials such as natural fiber, synthetic fiber, and other high-performance fibers. It offers exclusive characteristics and properties, and is not considered as one of the standards by the textiles industry. 


Technical Textiles Market
Technical Textiles Market
The Technical textiles market is driven by factors such as Changing Consumer Preferences, Growing Demand for New Applications Areas and Increasing Adaptability and Awareness of Products.

Technical Textiles Market
Technical Textiles Market
The technical textiles market is alleged to be one of the most innovative product segments for the textile industry across the world due to its growing attractiveness and adaptability, which plays a major role in its development. In many regions across the world, the market for convectional textiles has reached a stage of maturity; this market scenario in return reflects the technical textiles market growth. Emerging economies such as Japan, China, and India are putting more emphasis on adopting the latest technologies and manufacturing processes in various industrial segments.

The Asia Pacific region accounted for the largest share of ~33% of the global technical textiles market. Developing countries such as China and India are projected to grow at higher CAGRs as compared to other countries in the world, making the Asia-Pacific region the fastest-growing market for technical textiles. The growth is propelled by factors such as increasing population, rising environmental concerns, technology advancements, and increasing awareness about technical textiles functionality.

The technical textiles market in North America and Europe is more developed as compared to other regions. In addition, the distribution network of the technical textiles industry is well-established in many countries of North America and Europe. The high-growth potential in emerging markets and upcoming technologies provide new growth opportunities to market players.

Emergence of New Technologies, Growing Demand in Emerging Industrial Markets and Growing Importance of Geotextiles in the emerging countries are expected to create new opportunities in technical textiles market 

Key players:
  • E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co (U.S.)
  • Asahi Kasei Corporation (Japan)
  • Kimberly Clarke Corporation (U.S.) 
  • Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. (Tokyo)
  • Freudenberg & Co. KG (Germany) 
Click Here For more details

Essential and Desirable Properties of Textile Fibres
Essential and Desirable Properties of Textile Fibres

Characteristics of good textile fibre



A. Essential Properties of Textile Fibres

1. Length and length variation

Length is an important parameter which determines the usefulness of a textile fibre. When a continuous yarn is to be made out of individual fibres, it should possess a considerable length with reference to its diameter, otherwise, it would not be possible to make a yam that would hold together the constituent fibres. This is referred to as the length to breadth ratio. The most useful fibres should have the length to diameter/breadth ratios of more than 100: 1. 


Almost all textile fibres have the length to breadth ratio of more than 1000: 1. 

Typical ratios for several natural fibres are as follows:
  • Cotton=1400
  • Wool=3000
  • Silk=33 x 106
  • Flax=1200
  • Ramie=3000
Length is the most important fibre property as far as ring spinning is concerned. As the fibre length increases the overlapping of fibres in the yarn increases. The increase in overlapping results into increased resistance to slippage. If the yarn is spun from long and short fibres, then yarn spun from long fibres has more strength.

Textile fibrelength varies considerably within anyone sample. The variation is as high as 40% for cotton and about 50% for wool. Man-made staple fibres are more uniform. 

As the drafting settings are done on the basis of longer fibres in the cotton, if there is a higher variation in fibre length, a significant number of fibres behave as short fibres (floating fibres) in drafting. As the length of these short fibres is much less than the setting between drafting rollers, these fibres become uncontrolled or floating fibres resulting in high irregularity in drafted strand. Higher irregularity in drafting strand at various stages of drafting will give an irregular yarn having lower strength. The length uniformity thus affects the yarn irregularity and strength.



2. Strength

The strength indicates the resistance sustained by fibres, the yams or the fabrics to breakwhen force is applied to them. 
The strength may be a tensile strength, bending strength, bursting strength etc. as per the direction of application of force. Fibre strength and elongation have a directrelationship with yarn strength and elongation another thing being constant. A stronger fibre results into stronger yarn and same is true about fibre elongation.

The strength of any material is derived from the load it supports at the break and is thus a measure of its limiting load bearing capacity. Normally strength of a textile fibre is measured in tension when the fibre is loaded along its long axis and is designated as “Tensile Strength”. The tensile strength of the textile fibre is measured as the maximum tensile stress in force per unit cross-sectionalarea or per unit linear density, at the time of rupture — called “Tenacity”, expressed in terms of grams per denier or grams per texunits.



3. Uniformity

Uniformity means the evenness of the individual fibres in its length and diameter. 
A fibre possessing this property can produce reasonably even yarns. This is also important in connection with the strength of the resulting yarn. Uniform textile fibres should possess uniformity in their thickness and length. 

Unfortunately, none of the principal natural fibres like cotton or wool has the same length and diameter of the fibre in the same lot. Fibres in any specified qualities, grades or lots vary considerably in length and diameter. On the other hand, manmadestaple fibres are more uniform as they are cut to the exact length after being spun and drawn, and even the diameter can be controlled within close tolerance limits during its manufacture.



4. Spinnability

Spinnability includes several physical properties each having an effect on the ability of the fibres to be spun into yarn. Staple fibres must have to be capable of taking a twist or being twisted (Flexibility). They must have a certain degree of friction (Cohesion) against one another to stay in place when the pull is applied to the yarn. They must also be able to take on whole special finishes for lubrication during spinning or to provide additional surface resistance to abrasion.



4.1 Flexibility

The fibre should be sufficiently pliable; then only it can wrap around another fibre during spinning. If on the other hand, fibre is stiffer, then it is less adaptable for textile use, for example, glass and metallic fibres.



4.2 Cohesiveness

Cohesiveness is the property of clinging or sticking together in a mass. 
Usually, rigid fibres have lower cohesiveness. It is generally assumed that a high degree of frictional resistance plays a part in the cohesiveness. It is the property of an individual fibre by virtue of which the fibres hold on to one another when the fibres are spun into yarn. This action is usually brought about by the high degree of frictional resistance offered by the surface of the fibres to separate one from the other. 

The wool fibres, for example, have a saw-toothed surface, so that the projecting edges on its surface, called scales, easily catch on to one another when several such fibres are twisted together during spinning. On account of this, fibres offer resistance when an attempt is made to pull them apart. 

Cotton fibres also possess irregular or rough surface. Further, due to the natural twist in the cotton fibre known as convolution, the fibres interlock themselves by friction when they are spun into yarns. The introduction of a crimp in synthetic fibre increases cohesion.



B. Desirable Properties of Textile Fibres

1. Fineness

The fineness of a fibre is a relative measure of its thickness or diameter. 
Diameter measurement of textile fibres and yarns is not possible because of compressible nature and non-uniformity in diameter throughout its length therefore in textile fineness is expressed in terms of linear density.

If the fibre is finer there will be more number of fibres in the yarn cross section which will make more surface area available for inter-fibre friction and thus will provide more resistance to slippage. Due to this fact the yarns having the samecount, yarn spun from coarse and fine fibres, the yarn spun from finer fibres will have higher strength.

The fineness of cotton fibre is expressed in micrograms per inch i.e. micronaire. For wool fibre, fineness is given in microns and for manmade fibres, the fineness is given in denier or tex.



2. Resilience

Resilience is the springing back or recovery of a fibre when it is released from a deformation. 
The resistance to compression, flexing or torsion varies from fibre to fibre. Some fibres have a natural tendency to return to their original condition when any of the above-mentioned forces is applied, an important property where, for instance, recovery from creasing is required. 

Wool is outstanding in this respect by virtue of its natural characteristics, but cellulosic fibres may be modified in such a manner so as to greatly improve these properties. This springiness of a fibre or its mass resilience is highly desirable for carpet wool. Because of resiliency fibre/yarn/fabrics hold their shape, drape gracefully and do not wrinkle.



3. Capillarity and porosity

Porosity can be defined as:
The ratio of the volume of air contained within the boundaries of the material to the total volume of a solid plus air or void, expressed as a percentage

Porosity facilitates the absorption of moisture, liquid lubricants, dyes, oils and steam by the fibres so as to thoroughly permeate the fibre. 

Porosity in a fibre is important in wet processing. The natural and manmade fibres differ greatly in respect of porosity which in turn affects other properties of fibres and consequently the processing of fibres during textile manufacture. In general, natural fibres have higher porosity than synthetic fibres.



4. Lustre

Natural lustre enhances the value of textile fibre, especially of natural fibres. For example, the natural lustre of the silk gave it for a long time distinct advantage over the other textile fibres, and experiments were constantly made to improve the lustre of those fibres which were naturally dull. 

Since the introduction of viscose, however, with its extremely high and almost metallic lustre, consumer taste has gone a little in the opposite direction, and many fabrics produced today are purposely delustred in order to give the desired matt finish. Therefore, it is evident that lustre, under certain conditions and for certain purposes, may enhance the value of a fibre. On the other hand, too much of brightness may be a source of aversion to the user and hence it has to be delustred to a required degree of lustre by the delustring process.



5. Durability

A textile fibre should withstand processing treatments and should not be easily susceptible tophysical, chemical and bacteriological attack, which may result in damage and decomposition. 

The durability of clothing to average wear and tear depends somewhat more on the elasticity, flexibility and resistance of the fibre and fabric, rather than the absolute strength of either fibre or fabric. If a fabric possesses these three properties, its garment will absorb or counter more readily stresses and strains during wear. It will allow itself to be deformed with less resistance, thus reducing the chance of intermediate tearing or twisting. For these reasons wool garments owe much of their durability to the elasticity, resilience and flexibility of the fibre and fabric, even though wool is a weak fibre. 

Strength combined with these properties provides excellent durability that is why nylon and polyester fibre fabrics seem to last forever. A raised fabric surface increases fabric resilience and provides longer resistance to abrasive surfaces, e.g. carpets, ribbed fabrics, etc.


  1. Tenacity: 3–7 grams per denier (gpd)
  2. Elongation at break: 10–35%
  3. Elastic recovery: 100% at strain up to 5%
  4. Modulus of elasticity: 30–60 gpd
  5. Moisture absorbency: 2–5%
  6. Zero strength temperature: Excessive creep and softening point>215
  7. High abrasion resistance
  8. Dyeable
  9. Low flammability
  10. Insoluble (low swelling) in water, in moderately strong acids and bases and conventional organic solvents from room temperature to 100
  11. Easy care


  1. Tensile strength should be as high as possible and at least 7-8 gpd
  2. Elongation at break: 8-15 %
  3. The initial modulus in conditioned state should be 80 gpd and more; it should not drop below 50 gpd in wet condition
  4. The zero strength temperature should be high as possible i.e. 250
  5. Good resistance to acids and alkalis
  6. It should not catch fire.

Ashish Hulle

{twitter#https://twitter.com/AshishHulle}

Contact Form

Name

Email *

Message *

Powered by Blogger.
Javascript DisablePlease Enable Javascript To See All Widget