How to Write Abstract? | Guidelines for Writing Abstract

1. Abstract Writing Introduction

The abstract is a basic piece of a thesis, giving a concise synopsis/summary of the thesis. Students/researchers often don’t recognize the significance of the abstract and don’t invest the required energy to deliver an all-around characterized/ well-defined abstract. Here are rules/guidelines on the most proficient method to make a decent conceptual/abstract.

2. What is an Abstract?

The abstract is a smaller than usual adaptation of the theory i.e. it is summary of the thesis. It ought to give a concise rundown of the primary areas of the paper. At the end of the day, it is an outline of the data or information which is there in the postulation i.e. thesis.


3. What Types of Abstracts are Typically Used?

Two types of abstracts are commonly utilized:

3.1 Descriptive Abstracts 

  • Tell readers what data the report, article, or paper contains.
  • Include the reason, techniques, and extent of the report, article, or paper.
  • Do not give results, conclusions, or proposals.
  • Are constantly short, ordinarily under 100 words.
  • Introduce the subject to readers, who should then read the report, article, or paper to discover the writer’s outcomes, decisions, or proposals.

3.2 Informative Abstracts 

  • Communicate particular data from the report, article, or paper.
  • Include the reason, techniques, and extent of the report, article, or paper.
  • Provide the report, article, or paper’s outcomes, decisions, and proposals.
  • Are short – from a section to a page or two, contingent on the length of the first work being reported or summarized. Typically instructive modified works are 10% or less of the length of the first piece.
  • Allow readers to choose whether they need to peruse the report, article, or paper.

4. Its Purpose

The purpose of abstract is to give reader a fast recognizable proof of the essential substance of the theory or thesis. It ought to “remain all alone” and be an independent archive or self-contained document. There should be no compelling reason to look somewhere else in the thesis for understanding of what is said in abstract.

5. Length

The abstract should be exceptionally compact – the greatest length being half of one page. 250 words are enough to write the abstract. This implies you should streamline your utilization of words and tie thoughts together. Utilize the most exact and important words to best express the substance of the abstract. Abstracts that are too long should be re-composed (re-written).

6. Content

The abstract can be composed or written as one huge passage, or for simple understanding you can utilize sections for each area. Passage 1 should contain objectives and scope, Paragraph 2 a portrayal of the techniques utilized i.e. methodology, Paragraph 3 a synopsis/summary of the outcomes, and Paragraph 4 an announcement of the primary conclusions.

7. Other Considerations

  1. The abstract is typically composed in the past tense on the grounds that the exploration/research work is as of now done.
  2. While first individual (“I”, “we”) might be utilized as a part of the body of your thesis/proposal, you should utilize third individual (uninvolved/passive) in abstract.
  3. If possible try not to incorporate/include shortened forms or acronyms in your abstract. Yet in the event that if it is required to be included, don’t utilize them without clarifying them first. For instance, the first occasion when you utilize the abbreviation you must write out the full form and put the abbreviation in brackets. e.g. Fabric Assessment by Simple Testing (FAST). From then on you can use FAST in the abstract.
  4. Try not to utilize headings for your abstract sections/paragraphs. (e.g. Goals/Objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusions)
  5. Keep your abstract clear and straightforward – you are attempting to demonstrate the key purposes of your thesis to draw interest of readers.
  6. Constantly check your sentence structure i.e. grammar, spelling, and designing/formatting. Utilize either British English spelling traditions or American English spelling traditions throughout your abstract. Don’t use both spelling traditions.

8. Remember

The abstract is the principal thing that most of the readers read first. It means that the impressions drawn from reading of the abstract significantly affect the reading of your proposal/ thesis/ paper/manuscript.
Some of the notable words that can be included in different sections of the abstract are given below. This will help make the abstract easier to read and more clear to the reader. These are just examples. You must utilize the language accurately in the best possible setting and for the right reason.

8.1 Objective(s)

  • The purpose of this study was to investigate… Another aim was to find out… Finally, … was examined in the study.
  • The motivation behind this review was to examine… Another point was to discover… At last, … was inspected in the review.

8.2 Method(s)

  • (X) Method was applied….
  • (X) Strategy was adopted…. (Eg. quantitative/qualitative – both/other?)
  • The study/survey/thesis/questionnaire/opinion poll…examined, inspected, investigated, concentrated on,  focused on, was conducted, was led, completed,  carried out, sent out, administered, conveyed, directed (see list of more descriptive verbs) Questionnaires were conveyed/controlled/sent out/administered…

8.3 Result(s)/Conclusion(s)

  • The results of the study were that… It was found/discovered that… The results revealed/indicated… The outcomes uncovered/demonstrated…
  • The principal conclusion was that… One conclusion was that…

8.4 Miscellaneous

Following are some examples of correct singular and plural versions:

Sr. No.
Appendices (British English)
Appendices (American English)

9. Characteristics of a Good Abstract

  • Uses at least one well written sections: These are unified, clear, concise, and ready to remain solitary.
  • Uses an introduction/body/conclusion structure which represents the article/manuscript/paper/report’s motivation, results, conclusions, and proposals in a specific order.
  • Strictly follows the order of the article/paper/report.
  • Provides consistent associations (or moves) between the data included.
  • Adds no new data, yet basically compresses the report.
  • Is easily understandable to a wide group of onlookers.

10. Steps for Writing Effective Abstracts

To compose an effective abstract, take after these means:
1. Reread the article/paper/report considering the objective of abstracting. 
  • Look particularly for these primary parts of the article/paper/report: Reason, strategies, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendation.
  • Use the headings, outline heads, and chapter by chapter guide as a manual for composing your abstract.
2. After you’ve finished rereading the article/paper/report, write a rough draft without looking back at what you’re abstracting.
  • Don’t merely copy key sentences from the article/paper/report: You’ll put in too much or too little information.
  • Don’t rely on the way material was phrased in the article/paper/report: Summarize information in a new way.
3. After you’ve wrapped up reading the article/paper/report, write a rough draft without glancing back at what you’re abstracting.
  • Don’t simply duplicate key sentences from the article/paper/report: You’ll put in an excessive amount of or too little data.
  • Don’t depend on the way the information/ material was expressed in the article/paper/report: Newly outline the data or summarize it.
4. Revise your rough draft to
  • Correct shortcomings in organization/association.
  • Drop/exclude pointless data.
  • Add vital data you forgot.
  • Eliminate tediousness.
  • Fix mistakes in sentence structure, spelling, and punctuation.
5. Print your final copy of abstract and read it again to get any glitches that you find.

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